N.R.C.C., Clinical Chemistry, 1992.
D.A.B.C.C., Clinical Chemistry, 1992.
Clinical Chemistry Fellow, University of Washington, Laboratory Medicine, 1992.
Postdoc Research Associate, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Molecular Virology, 1990.
Postdoc Fellow, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Biochemistry Oncology, 1986.
Ph.D., University of Washington, Biochemistry, 1982.
M.S., Ohio State University, Botany, 1971.
B.S., National Taiwan University, Botany, 1968.
For most recent work on differentially expressed genes in oral squamous cell carcinoma, please click the homepage link in the Contact Information section on this page.
A major emphasis of my research has been to understand the possible role of metabolic enzymes in the activation and detoxification of potential carcinogens in the environment, as well as steroid hormones and growth factors, in the etiology of cancer. Of particular interest is the contribution of genetic polymorphisms of these enzymes and receptor molecules for hormones and growth factors to susceptibility to cancer.
In collaboration with epidemiologists, my laboratory has been conducting molecular epidemiologic studies to examine the potential association of polymorphisms of certain genes (such as CYP2D6, CYP2E1, GSTM1, GSTP1, GSTT1, microsomal epoxide hydrolase, NAT1, NAT2, NQO1, etc.), that may play an important role in the activation or detoxification of potential carcinogens that are found in tobacco smoke or are derived from food sources, with the incidence of cancers of the oral cavity, nasopharynx, colon, anus, penis, cervix, vagina, and vulva, and of acute myelocytic leukemia. For cancers of the oral cavity, we are also examining their incidence in relation to alcohol consumption and polymorphisms of the alcohol dehydrogenase type 2 and type 3 genes. Recently, we have begun to use microarray technology to examine differential gene expression in oral cancers of different clinical stage.
Collaborative studies pertaining to hormonal carcinogenesis include: (1) polymorphisms of CYP17, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, catechol O-methyltransferase, glutathione S-transferases, and estrogen receptor in relation to the incidence of cancers of the breast and endometrium; (2) polymorphisms of the 5-alpha reductase type II gene (the 5-alpha reductase converts testosterone to a more potent androgen dihydrotestosterone) and the androgen receptor gene in relation to the incidence of prostate cancer; (3) polymorphisms of CYP11a, CYP17, 3-beta HSD type II, CYP3A4 and UGT2B15 and the incidence of testicular cancer.
Other studies pertain to the evaluation of prediagnostic levels of endogenous sex hormones (androstenedione, testosterone, 3 alpha diol glucuronide, estradiol), sex hormone binding globulin, and insulin-like growth factors and polymorphisms of insulin-like growth factor gene and insulin-like growth factor binding protein gene in relation to prostate cancer risk; the dietary influences on the activities of glutathione S-transferases, cytochrome 450 enzymes, and female hormone levels; the transcriptional regulation of glutathione S-transferases, and the evaluation of melatonin metabolism in relation to exposure to magnetic fields.
(Reading, Writing, Speaking)
Chinese, Mandarin: (Fluent, Fluent, Fluent)
English: (Fluent, Fluent, Fluent)
Academy of Clinical Laboratory Physicians and Scientists
American Association for Cancer Research
American Association for Clinical Chemistry
Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium
International Academy of Oral Oncology
International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium
International Lung Cancer Consortium
International Society for the Studies of Xenobiotics
Honors and Awards
2005, Honoree, Women of Color Empowered, Northwest Asian Foundation
1991, Young Investigator Award, Academy of Clinical Laboratory Physicians and Scientists
1983-1986, Postdoctoral Individual National Research Service Award, NCI, NIH
2001-2006, Affiliate Associate Professor, University of Washington, School of Medicine, Otolaryngology: Head and Neck Surgery
2000-2006, Affiliate Associate Professor, University of Washington, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Epidemiology
1999-2005, Associate Member, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Public Health Sciences Division, Program in Epidemiology
1999-1999, Assistant Member, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Public Health Sciences Division, Program in Epidemiology
1995-1999, Assistant Member, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Public Health Sciences Division, Program in Cancer Biology
1992-1997, Founder and Director of Core Laboratory, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Public Health Sciences Division, Program in Cancer Biology
1992-1993, Clinical Chemist, Providence Hospital
1974-1976, Research Technician II, Case Western Reserve University, Surgery, Opthalmology, Project: Chemistry of Rhodopsin
1972-1972, Medical Mycologist/Microbiologist, W.A. Foote Memorial Hospital, Clinical Laboratory
1972-1974, Senior Research Technician, Michigan State University, Atomic Energy Commission Plant Research Laboratory, Physiology of Abscisic Acid and Xanthoxin
Characterization of large structural genetic mosaicism in human autosomes.. American journal of human genetics. 96(3):487-97.. 2015.
Genome-wide gene-asbestos exposure interaction association study identifies a common susceptibility variant on 22q13.31 associated with lung cancer risk.. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology.. 2015.
Risk factors for endometrial cancer in black and white women: a pooled analysis from the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium (E2C2).. Cancer causes & control : CCC. 26(2):287-96.. 2015.
Risk factors for head and neck cancer in young adults: a pooled analysis in the INHANCE consortium.. International journal of epidemiology. 44(1):169-85.. 2015.
Risk of breast, endometrial, colorectal, and renal cancers in postmenopausal women in association with a body shape index and other anthropometric measures.. Cancer causes & control : CCC. 26(2):219-29.. 2015.
Hormone Use, Reproductive History and Risk of Lung Cancer: The Women's Health Initiative Studies.. Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer.. 2015.
Cruciferous vegetables have variable effects on biomarkers of systemic inflammation in a randomized controlled trial in healthy young adults.. The Journal of nutrition. 144(11):1850-7.. 2014.
Estimating and explaining the effect of education and income on head and neck cancer risk: INHANCE consortium pooled analysis of 31 case-control studies from 27 countries.. International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer.. 2014.
Association of Marijuana Smoking with Oropharyngeal and Oral Tongue Cancers: Pooled Analysis from the INHANCE Consortium.. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology. 23(1):160-71.. 2014.
Exome-wide association study of endometrial cancer in a multiethnic population.. PloS one. 9(5):e97045.. 2014.
Genome-wide association study of endometrial cancer in E2C2.. Human genetics.. 2013.
Adult height and head and neck cancer: a pooled analysis within the INHANCE Consortium.. European journal of epidemiology.. 2013.
Night Shift Work and Levels of 6-Sulfatoxymelatonin and Cortisol in Men.. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology.. 2013.
A 13-Gene Signature Prognostic of HPV-Negative OSCC: Discovery and External Validation.. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 19(5):1197-203.. 2013.
Smoking and Diabetes: Does the Increased Risk Ever Go Away? American journal of epidemiology.. 2013.
Type I and II Endometrial Cancers: Have They Different Risk Factors? Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 31(20):2607-18.. 2013.
Estrogen Plus Progestin and Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study.. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 105(8):526-35.. 2013.
DNA repair genotype and lung cancer risk in the beta-carotene and retinol efficacy trial.. International journal of molecular epidemiology and genetics. 4(1):11-34.. 2013.