M.D., Medical University of South Carolina, 1980.
Ph.D., Medical University of South Carolina, 1978.
Protection and Control of HIV-1 Infection by T Cell Immunity.
Our laboratory seeks to identify the components of immunity that are important in preventing and controlling HIV-1 infection. Our goal is to understand how T cell memory is induced both in natural infection and by immunization, and to identify the properties of T cells that confer containment or eradiation of HIV-1.
Our studies encompass a broad range of immunologic investigations in persons who experience unusual control of HIV-1 infection. These include individuals with newly diagnosed infection, those with long-term non-progressive disease who control infection for more than a decade without antiretroviral treatment, and individuals repeatedly exposed but not infected. These clinical cohorts have been assembled for longitudinal studies in both Seattle and in countries where the HIV epidemic is widespread (South Africa, Uganda). Most recent studies focus on African HIV discordant couples, providing a unique opportunity to address host characteristics that lead to altered susceptibility to infection and transmission. In addition, we have targeted studies to gain further understanding of how HIV-1 gains entry into the mucosa and the induction of HIV-specific mucosal immunity.
We also devote extensive efforts to HIV-1 vaccine development. First, we lead a large collaborative project to identify innate immune mechanisms that may enhance adaptive immunological memory to HIV. Further, our laboratory program oversees the evaluation of multiple candidate vaccines in a international vaccine network, which provides basic insights into how different vaccine modalities elicit optimal B- and T-cell immunity to HIV-1 that may be ultimately protective against infection and disease.
American College of Physicians
Association of American Physicians
National Institute of Health AIDS Vaccine Research Subcommittee
Honors and Awards
2008, M. Juliana McElrath, American College of Physicians, Fellowship
2000-2006, M. Juliana McElrath, Burroughs Wellcome, Clinical Scientist Award in Translational Research
1997, M. Juliana McElrath, National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Merit Award
Plasma Cytokine Levels and Risk of HIV Type 1 (HIV-1) Transmission and Acquisition: A Nested Case-Control Study Among HIV-1-Serodiscordant Couples.. The Journal of infectious diseases. 211(9):1451-60.. 2015.
HIV-1 single-stranded RNA induces CXCL13 secretion in human monocytes via TLR7 activation and plasmacytoid dendritic cell-derived type I IFN.. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). 194(6):2769-75.. 2015.
HIV-1 integration landscape during latent and active infection.. Cell. 160(3):420-32.. 2015.
Use of placebos in Phase 1 preventive HIV vaccine clinical trials.. Vaccine. 33(6):749-52.. 2015.
Identification of effective subdominant anti-HIV-1 CD8+ T cells within entire post-infection and post-vaccination immune responses.. PLoS pathogens. 11(2):e1004658.. 2015.
OMIP-025: evaluation of human T- and NK-cell responses including memory and follicular helper phenotype by intracellular cytokine staining.. Cytometry. Part A : the journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology. 87(4):289-92.. 2015.
Mucosal effects of tenofovir 1% gel.. eLife. 4. 2015.
Analysis of HLAA*02 association with vaccine efficacy in the RV144 HIV-1 vaccine trial.. Journal of virology.. 2014.
One shot forward for HIV prevention.. Nature medicine. 20(3):241-2.. 2014.
Long-term effect of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate on vaginal microbiota, epithelial thickness and HIV target cells.. The Journal of infectious diseases.. 2014.
Optimization of a whole blood phenotyping assay for enumeration of peripheral blood leukocyte populations in multicenter clinical trials.. Journal of immunological methods.. 2014.
Challenges and responses in human vaccine development.. Current opinion in immunology. 28:18-26.. 2014.
Variants in host viral replication cycle genes are associated with heterosexual HIV-1 acquisition in Africans.. Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999).. 2014.
Toll-like Receptor Polymorphism Associations With HIV-1 Outcomes Among Sub-Saharan Africans.. The Journal of infectious diseases.. 2014.
Increased Sequence Coverage through Combined Targeting of Variant and Conserved Epitopes Correlates with Control of HIV Replication.. Journal of virology. 88(2):1354-65.. 2014.
Antiretroviral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Does Not Enhance Immune Responses to HIV in Exposed but Uninfected Persons.. The Journal of infectious diseases.. 2014.
Efficacy Trial of a DNA/rAd5 HIV-1 Preventive Vaccine.. The New England journal of medicine.. 2013.
Differential Regulatory T Cell Activity in HIV Type 1-Exposed Seronegative Individuals.. AIDS research and human retroviruses.. 2013.
Progress in HIV-1 vaccine development.. Current opinion in HIV and AIDS. 8(4):326-32.. 2013.